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O que são efluentes e por quê devemos tratá-los?

O que são efluentes?

Efluente é o resíduo líquido resultante de processos industriais. Na química, define-se dois tipos de efluentes líquidos: os gerados na planta, a partir de processos como reações, separações ou reciclos e os usados como utilidades, como águas de lavagem, resfriamento etc.

Como tratar?

O tratamento de efluentes industriais ideal é indicado de acordo com a carga poluidora e presença de contaminantes. Apenas especialistas podem avaliar e realizar a coleta de amostras para análise de diversos parâmetros que representam a carga orgânica e a carga tóxica dos efluentes.
Os processos de tratamento são classificados em físicos, químicos e biológicos, conforme a natureza dos poluentes a serem removidos e/ou das operações unitárias utilizadas para o tratamento.

Processos físicos
São os processos que removem os sólidos em suspensão sedimentáveis e flutuantes através de separações físicas, tais como gradeamento, peneiramento, caixas separadoras de óleos e gorduras, sedimentação e flotação.
Os processos físicos também removem a matéria orgânica e inorgânica em suspensão coloidal e reduzem ou eliminam a presença de microrganismos por meio de processos de filtração em areia ou em membranas (microfiltração e ultrafiltração). Os processos físicos também são utilizados com a finalidade de desinfecção, tais como a radiação ultravioleta.

Processos químicos
Utilizam produtos químicos em seu processo, tais como: agentes de coagulação, floculação, neutralização de pH, oxidação, redução e desinfecção em diferentes etapas dos sistemas de tratamento. Conseguem remover os poluentes por meio de reações químicas, além de condicionar a mistura de efluentes que será tratada nos processos subsequentes.

Seus principais processos são:

– Clarificação química (remove matéria orgânica coloidal, incluindo coliformes);
– Eletrocoagulação (remove matéria orgânica, incluindo compostos coloidais, corantes e óleos/ gorduras);
– Precipitação de fosfatos e outros sais (remoção de nutrientes), pela adição de coagulantes químicos compostos de ferro e ou alumínio;
– Cloração para desinfecção;
– Oxidação por ozônio, para a desinfecção;
– Redução do cromo hexavalente;
– Oxidação de cianetos;
– Precipitação de metais tóxicos;
– Troca iônica.

Processos biológicos
O tratamento biológico de esgotos e efluentes industriais tem o objetivo de remover a matéria orgânica dissolvida e em suspensão ao transformá-la em sólidos sedimentáveis (flocos biológicos) e gases. Basicamente, o tratamento biológico reproduz os fenômenos que ocorrem na natureza, mas em menor tempo.

Seus principais processos são:

– Processos aeróbios, que são representados por lodos ativados e suas variantes, tais como, aeração prolongada, lodos ativados convencionais, lagoas aeradas facultativas e aeradas aeróbias;

– Processos facultativos, que são realizados pela utilização de biofilmes (filtros biológicos, biodiscos e biocontactores) e por algumas lagoas (fotossintéticas e aeradas facultativas). Os biocontactores apresentam também processos biológicos aeróbios;

– Os processos anaeróbios ocorrem em lagoas anaeróbias e biodigestores.

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